| French Republic|
|Head of State||President of France|
|Head of Government||Prime Minister of France|
|Appearances||Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows|
The French Republic was a country in western Europe. It was bordered to the northwest by the English Channel; to the northeast by Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany; to the east by Switzerland; to the southeast by Italy; and to the south by Spain and Andorra. They had a historical rivalry with Germany.
Since their famous revolution of 1789, France has switched back and forth between a republican and a monarchic system of government several times. Rebellions or revolts have occurred in 1804, 1814, 1815, 1830, 1832, 1848, and 1851. By the end of the 19th century France was under their third republic, which had been proclaimed in 1871 after Emperor Napoleon III was overthrown following France's disastrous loss in the Franco-Prussian War.
Holmes investigates the theft of a secret treaty from Percy Phelps' office in the Foreign Office. The treaty, between the United Kingdom and Italy, clarifies Britain's position towards the Triple Alliance (Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary) should France gain complete naval ascendency over Italy in the Mediterranean. Foreign Secretary Lord Holdhurst warns Sherlock Holmes of the disastrous consequences that would occur should the treaty fall into the hands of France or their ally Russia.
Holmes tells Watson that during his three-year absence he spent some months in Montpellier, researching coal-tar derivatives.
Holmes traveled to France in the Spring of 1887 while investigating the case of the Netherland-Sumatra Company and Baron Maupertuis. The case was unusually taxing for him, and he fell ill at the Hotel Dulong in Lyons shortly after its completion. Watson traveled to the hotel to visit Holmes after being informed of his illness, and the pair returned to England three days later.
Holmes receives the Legion of Honor and a personal letter of thanks from the French president for the tracking and arrest of Huret, the "Boulevard Assassin".
When an important piece of secret correspondence is stolen from the home of Trelawney Hope, Holmes initially suggests a French spy, Louis La Rothière, as one of the three most likely suspects. The actual culprit, Eduardo Lucas, also has a connection to France: he was living a second life in Paris as "Monsieur Henri Fournaye", with a wife and house on the Rue Austerlitz. His wife, a French Creole, murders him in London in a fit of jealousy after mistaking Hilda Hope, whom he was blackmailing, for his lover.
La Rothière is again suspected when top-secret plans are stolen from Woolwich Arsenal and the young clerk guarding them, Cadogan West, turns up dead. The spy, however, turns out to be Hugo Oberstein, who manages to escape to Paris after being found out.