| Charles II |
|Born|| 29 May 1630|
|Died|| 6 February 1685 (aged 54)|
|Parents|| Charles I of England|
Henrietta Maria of France
|Spouse||Catherine of Braganza|
|Children||8 illegitimate children|
|Position||King of England, Scotland, and Ireland|
|Religion||Anglican, converted to Catholicism on deathbed|
|Behind the scenes|
|Appearances||"The Adventure of the Musgrave Ritual" (mentioned)|
Charles II was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1660 until his death in 1685. Following the execution of his father, Charles I of England, for treason during the English Civil War, the English monarchy was abolished, and Charles II was forced into exile in continental Europe. He was only able to return when the death of Oliver Cromwell, the military dictator who had ruled England since his father's overthrow, plunged the country into political chaos and allowed Charles to claim the throne in 1660.
Reginald Musgrave, a university acquaintance of Sherlock Holmes, asks Holmes to visit him at his house, Hurlstone, to investigate the disappearance of two of his staff. The two vanished after reading a secret family heirloom, the titular Musgrave Ritual, dating from the 17th century, which Holmes deduces is in fact a guide to a hidden treasure. At the close of the mystery they discover a bag containing coins from the reign of Charles I and the twisted remains of a crown. Holmes deduces it to be the ancient crown of the kings of England, hidden by Royalist forces after Charles' execution in anticipation of his son's return and the restoration of the monarchy. Reginald confirms this theory by reveals than an ancestor, Sir Ralph Musgrave, was a close companion of Charles II in exile. Why the crown was never returned to Charles remains a mystery: Holmes speculates that by an oversight the instigator of the ritual died while accidentally only passing on the guide and not its meaning. Following the case Musgrave is allowed to keep the crown by the British government, though only after paying quite a bit of money.
- Charles II of England on Wikipedia.